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  • Rites Held for 2 Girls, Latest of 6 Slain; Special to The New York Times
  • NEW BRIBERY COUNT CHARGED IN FT. LEE
  • Article 4 -- No Title
  • CORRECTION
  • Unemployment in State Rises to 9.5%; Special to The New York Times
  • Deaths in Job Injuries Down
  • Allegheny to Cut Flights
  • OFFICERS INDICTED IN MAN'S BEATING; Special to The New York Times
  • New Jersey Briefs; Court Upholds 2 Police Suspensions
  • Lapsing Subsidies A re Extended For State Rail and Bus Routes; Special to The New York Times
  • NATURAL GAS CUT IN JERSEY AGAIN; A 2d Curtailment of Utility Threatens to Shut Plants in 6 Southern Counties
  • Aiding Needy Becomes a Custom
  • WATERGATE JURY RECEIVES CHARGE; WEIGHS FATE OF 5; Special to The New York Times NO QUICK VERDICT SEEN ...
  • 3 Killed and 9 Wounded By an Upstate Sniper, 18; 3 Killed and 9 Wounded?? By an Upstate Sniper, 18.
  • Mills Reveals Alcoholism; Plans to Stay in Congress; Special to The New York Times
  • News Summary and Index; The Major Events of the Day International Quotation of the Day
  • PRESIDENT VETOES STRIP MINING BILL, OIL TANKER PLAN; Special to The New York Times
  • Gold Re-enters the Market Place After 41 Years; Gold Re-enters Market After 41 Years
  • Hunt Tells of Early Work For a C.I.A. Domestic Unit; Special to The New York Times
  • Few Banks Are Sold on Gold
  • London Restaurant Closes,
  • CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING INDEX.
  • Television; Cable TV
  • KREMLIN CANCELS BREZHNEV'S VISIT TO MIDDLE EAST; Ministers in Moscow Affirm Interest in Geneva Parley ...
  • NEWS INDEX
  • Radio; Talks, Sports, Events News Broadcasts
  • $170,000 in Illegal Gifts Admitted by Ashland Oil; Special to The New York Times Special to The New ...
  • Pakistan Estimates Quake Killed 4,700 in 9 Towns; Ground Contact With Disaster Area, in Mountains of ...
  • Nursing Homes Here Live in a 'Never-Never Land' Of Accounting, State Costs Commission Reports
  • Connecticut to Build Solar-Heating Plant In Housing for Aged; Special to The New York Times
  • U.S. Crop Exports Set Record Level In Fiscal Period
  • MORE CORPORATIONS ADOPT LIFO SYSTEM
  • Business Records; BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS
  • Canadian Paper Gains
  • LONDON METAL MARKET; (In sounds sterling per metric ton)
  • Cash Prices
  • Chile to Reopen Doors To Overseas Bankers
  • Less Gas Bought in '74 But More Paid for It
  • Shipping/Mails All Hours Given in Eastern Standard Time; Outgoing Mail Ships No passenger ship arrivals ...
  • Utility Project Is Set
  • Commodity Price Index Fell 0.7 From Week-Ago Level
  • Open Interest
  • Listing of Prices of Commodity Futures
  • Business Briefs; Steel-Scrap Export Quotas Ending
  • VETERANS TO GET HIGHER DIVIDENDS; Insurance Payments in '75 Will Total $335.6-Million
  • Harvester to Resume Work At Its Plants Using Steel
  • Highs and Lows
  • Driving Down 3% In U.S. During '74; Drop 1st Since '44
  • Cut in Long-Distance Air Fares, Rise for Short Hauls Affirmed
  • PRICES OF SILVER DROP DAILY LIMIT; Some Selling Tied to Need for Cash to Buy Gold
  • Over-the-Counter Quotations; Quotations supplied through NASDAQ as of 4:00 P.M. Quotes do not include ...
  • United States Government and Agency Bonds; (Prices in 32rd of a point, composite bill yields in basis points)
  • FOREIGN SECURITIES; (In U.S. Dollars)
  • AUTHORITY BONDS
  • MARKETS IN INDIA
  • Head of House Panel Asks Inquiry Into 'Missing' Nuclear Substances; Special to The New York Times
  • Supplementary O-T-C
  • HARDWICKE PLANS FOR SALE OF PARK; Pritzker Unit May Aquire 95% of Great Adventure
  • RESOURCE STUDY GETS $12-MILLION; Special to The New York Times
  • MUTUAL FUNDS
  • U.S. BELGIAN GROUP SIGNS IRAN GAS PACT
  • J. C. Penney Credit Sat
  • Foy Sees Strong Steel Demand; People and Business
  • Sales Agent for Chile
  • Chicago Board Options Exchange
  • A Computer Error Can Restore Faith
  • AMEX PRICES OFF IN HEAVY TRADING; O-T-C Stocks Close Mixed --Tax Selling a Factor .
  • Television and Its New Props; Advertising
  • Normal Trading Hours Set for Stock Markets
  • RCA Global Unit Ordered to Transfer Satellite Operations
  • Arcata Settles With U.S. On Land Taken for Forest
  • 2 More Companies Scheduled for Sale By Westinghouse; Westinghouse Announces Sale Of 2 Elevator Units Overseas
  • Market Place; Kennecott Shareholders Complain
  • Gold Price Touches $197.50 but Wanes; Special to The New York Times BUYING CONTINUES HEAVY IN BULLION
  • A. & P. EARNINGS ADVANCE SHARPLY; Profit in, Quarter 27 Cents a Share, Up From 3Sales Gain by 3.4%
  • Contract Awards
  • WILSON & CO. SHUTS 3 BIG PORK PLANTS; Step Caused by Decrease in Demand Will Idle 850
  • New Construction Orders Dropped 20% in November
  • Armco Lifts Prices On Some Products; Price Changes
  • Steel Production d Slumps for Week On Coal Problems
  • Family Seeks Slump's Silver Lining; Special to The New York Times Family Pursues Slump's Silver Lining
  • Arctic Gas Files New Plans on Line; ARCTIC GAS FILES NEW PLANS ON LINE
  • Grappling With Multinational Corporations; Special to The New York Times The Problem of Coping With ...
  • FOOD PROFIT HELD EQUAL TO OTHERS; Study Finds Net Is 'Neither Spectacular Nor Poor'-Bookkeeping a Factor
  • Building Contracts Drop
  • JOINT OIL BIDDING DECRIED IN HOUSE; Special to The New York Times
  • Trading Pace Gains in a Mixed Market; Treasury Notes Sold for Additional Cash; Many Investors Occupied ...
  • 11 ARE INDICTED ON US. FINANCIAL; Individuals and Companies Are Cited on Charges of Defrauding Investors
  • The Old, in Albany, Gets Set to Ring In the New; Special to The New York Times
  • Issue for $1.25-Billion Auctioned at 7.33%; Credit Markets
  • Health and Safety Survey Finds Violations in 90% of the Schools
  • 3 Democratic State Senators Seeking Minority Leadership
  • Residents Deny Funds to Willimantic; Special to The New York Times
  • SUSPECT GIVEN BAIL IN COPTER HIJACKING
  • DISMISSED DEAN FOUND IN NEW JOB; Ex-School Official in Beating Case Is Let Go Again After Record Is Discovered
  • Suffolk Legislators Abandon Proposal To Raise Salaries; Special to The New York Times
  • China Strikes Offshore Oil TOKYO, Dec. 30 --China
  • Eastland Protest Halted '72 Raids on Cotton Gins
  • CAREY TO OCCUPY MIDTOWN OFFICE; To Take Space Wilson Used -Rejects Rockefeller Plan on World Trade Center
  • Battle Expected on Tighter Laws to Curb Illegal Aliens; This is the third and final article of a series ...
  • In Memoriam
  • STRIKE IS A VERTED IN BUILDINGS HERE; 25,000 Manhattan Workers Will Stay on the Job
  • Auld Acquaintances to Hear Lombardo ce
  • Deaths
  • Article 3 -- No Title
  • Article 2 -- No Title
  • CARTER AGAIN ASKS FOR A NEW TRIAL; He Appeals to Same Judge Who Denied Earlier Move
  • Planning Commission Drops 22 Schools
  • Metropolitan Briefs; From the Police Blotter: Natural-Gas Cut Perils Jersey Jobs Coast Guard Ends Search ...
  • Robert Jones, Ad Man, 64; Served McCann Ericson
  • FREDERICK ATHERTON
  • Richard P. Dyckman, 78, Ex-Mayor of Plainfield, N.J.
  • ARTHUR H. QUIGLEY; Special to The New York Times
  • George H. Earle 3d, 84, Dead; Ex-Governor of Pennsylvania
  • Article 1 -- No Title; NED E. DEPINET, 84, EX-PRESIDENT OF RKO
  • WALFRED E. BOBERG
  • LEON DANIEL
  • Michael Alaux, 51, Coached Olympic Fencers for U. S.
  • Parking Eased Tomorrow
  • SAUL LANDAU
  • SPLIT RAIL BLAMED IN TRAIN DERAILING
  • Gold Re-enters Market-Place Today After 41 Years; Gold Re-enters Market After 41 Years
  • F.A.A. Appoints a Panel To Study Safety Charges
  • EAST SIDERS FIGHT MORE OTB PARLORS
  • VICTIMS SWITCHED TO DOOMED PLANE; Chartered It in Guatemala Because Original Craft 'Didn't Look Safe'
  • Aiding Needy Becomes a Custom; HOW TO AID THE FUND
  • Ford Recalls 11,400 Trucks With Defect In Front Axle
  • News Summary and Index; The Major Events of the Day National International The Other News Quotation of the Day
  • City Health Code Violations Charged to 16 Food Places
  • Few Banks Are Sold on Gold By FRANK J. PRIAL ment is made. For Instance, a Corporation in New Jersey,
  • Evading the Demon Grog
  • There Is Much More to Drinking Than Quenching Your Thirst; By Marya Mannes
  • JUSTICE OFFICIALS ACCUSED IN TEXAS; Special to The New York Times Outgoing U.S. Attorney Says Indictments ...
  • Spying for Liberty; IN THE NATION
  • Terror in Nicaragua
  • Letters to the Editor derly Deserve Better On Cons; The City's Elderly Deserve Better Inflation, Automobiles ...
  • Virtue in Gold Leaf
  • Take Your Scrubbers
  • ' Demonstrated Concern' In making his tentative selections for the initial board of the new legal services ...
  • Justice for the Judges For the first time in its 184-year history, the docke
  • ANSWER TO PREVIOUS PUZZLE
  • Bridge Game Is Not Always Certain Bridge: With Opposite Opening Bids
  • Kent State Coach Reprimanded
  • A Tale of Two Vetoes
  • Nonplussed by Bananas; Books of The Times
  • OTB Looking to Go South for the Winter; At the Race Tracks
  • Tonight's Yonkers Entries
  • Yonkers Results B letters subject to 5% State ta
  • CROSSWORD PUZZLE
  • Chess: The Gentle Art of Bluffing, A Flimsy Straw for Grasping; KINGS INDIAN DEFENE
  • Nets Beat Sounds On Team Effort; Special to The New York Times Nets Conquer Sounds With Balance, 128-119
  • CORRECTION
  • Hockey, Basketball Standings
  • N.B.A. NotMaking Its Points as Often
  • Texas Loses To Auburn In Gator; Auburn Upsets Texas In Gator Bowl by 27-3
  • Weekend Boxing; By The Associated Press
  • Pride and Poise' and Frustration; Dave Anderson Sports of The Times
  • Fordham Wins Festival Crown; Fordham Festival Winner
  • About the Nets...
  • Jazz Center Sidelined
  • Sports News Briefs; L.I. Lutheran Five Wins Tourney
  • Sports Today
  • Newcombe and Connors Closer to a Showdown
  • Steelers Believed Able to Slow Vikings; Steelers Believed Able To Slow Down Vikings
  • Hunter Spurns $2.6-Million Bid; $2.6-Million IsRejected By Hunter
  • Colts' Thomas Sheds The Coach-Himself; People in Sports
  • Rangers Top Stars for 3d in Row, 8-1; Special to The New York Times Rangers Top North Stars For 3d Straight ...
  • Providence Is Upset by St. John's
  • Rams Show An Interest In Namath; Special to The New York Times.
  • High Tides Around New York
  • 8% JOBLESS RATE IS EXPECTED HERE; Economic Council Predicts State Will Be Among the Hardest Hit in Nation
  • Baylor Coach Is Voted Award As Team Drills for Pe~nn State
  • Liggett's, a Landmark In Times Sq., Closing
  • Ozark Picketed Again
  • British Soccer Standing; ENGLISH 'LEAGUE
  • Reports on Ski Conditions
  • Washington State Prison Revolt Quelled, 4 of 13 Hostages Hurt
  • LEGAL NOTICES
  • Events Today; Music Cabaret Dance
  • Paris: When Europe Was French-and Louis XV Ruled; Arts Abroad
  • Cuba Cuts Sugar Ration
  • Antiquities Dealers, Fearing Suits, Restrict Activities By GRACE GLUECK signed a bilateral treaty with ...
  • Dance: Kirkland's Elan; Ballerina, Partnered by Baryshnikov, Meets His Gentleness With Grace
  • Opera, 'Nela,' By Gonzalez, At Tully Hall
  • Klan Plans to Investigate Charleston Book Dispute
  • Film Critics Cite 'Amarcord' and Fellini
  • Music: Polish Power; Bobby Vinton, at Carnegie Hall, Takes Up Current Fad in Smooth Performance
  • GOING OUT Guide
  • $1-Million in Art Stolen at Paris Home; Special to The New York Times
  • Theater: A Vampiress; ' Hotel for Criminals' Is at the Westbeth
  • President's Son Helps In Rescue of a Skier
  • MATING OF PROTON BELIEVED PROVED; findings May Provide Key to the Identification of Antimatter in Cosmos
  • G. S. Dutton Marries Alice J. King
  • An Oracle Analyzes The Course Of Fashion
  • Champagne at 12? Warning to Poppers
  • Martial Air Prevails As 50 Debutantes Bow
  • Governor-Elect to Climb Peak... and Write; Notes on People
  • In Britain, Equal Rights by Law if Not in Fact
  • Informer in '73 Muslim Killings Found Slain in Philadelphia Jail
  • Wyman Is Appointed Senator for 3 Days; Special to The New York Times
  • Excerpts From Sirica's Charge to Cover-Up Jurors
  • TRIAL TAPE COPIES MAY COST BUT $88; Networks Give Estimate on White House Recordings
  • Stop Signs Uprooted; 2 Killed and 3 Injured
  • Contractor Feared Dead
  • 3 on Boston School Panel Fined Over Busing Order; Special to The New York Times Judge Garrity Also Orders ...
  • BISHOP BIDS MANILA AIR TORTURE REPORT; Special to The New York Times
  • KENYA LIKELY SITE OF ANGOLA PARLEY
  • Seamans Takes Oath
  • Experts Call Mills's Recovery Outlook 'Excellent'
  • Deaths From Fires Decline, But Property Damage Rises
  • South Koreans Push Aid Drive For Paper Harassed by Regime; Special to The New York Times
  • Italy Centralizing Her Investigation Of a Rightist Plot; Special to The New York Times
  • Birth Defects Month
  • Ford Signs A id Bill but A attacks Cuts in Funds to Help Indochina; Special to The New York Times
  • A PANEL IS NAMED TO REBUILD DARWIN; Special to The New York Times
  • KISSINGER OFFERS AIDE LIAISON POST; Special to The New York Times
  • Joint Panel Sees Big Deficits but No Spur to Economy; Special to The New York Times
  • TRUDEAU SPEAKS OF HIS MARRIAGE; Special to The New York Times
  • 19 Americans Flee R.ebel-Held Town In Northwest Laos
  • Text of the Statement by Mills
  • Nicaraguan Rebels Free Hostages and Fly to Cuba; Special to The New York Times Somoza Government Also ...
  • Mrs. Gandhi Says Rich Lands Owe Debt; Special to The New York Times
  • 3 Killed and 9 Wounded By an Upstate Sniper, 18; 3 Killed and 9 Wounded By an Upstate Sniper, 18
  • WATERGATE JURY RECEIVES CHARGE:; Special to The New York Times Sirica Rejects Request of the Jurors ...
  • Minister Says Guerrilla Action Could Threaten Rhodesia Talks
  • Zaire Will Nationalize Industry And Start Re-Education Plan
  • To Share the Polar Wonders, Just Answer the Classified Ads; I.New Opportunities Antarctic Chronicle ...
  • U.S. Officials Pleased by Soviet Decision on Mideast; Special to The New York Times
  • New Growth of Brazilian Cults Is Troubling the Catholic Church By MARVINE HOWE African saint, a native ...
  • TOP MUSICIANS VOW TO BOYCOTT UNESCO
  • PRESIDENT VETOES STRIP MINING BILL, OIL TANKER PLAN; Special to The New York Times
  • Hunt Tells of Early Work For a C.I.A. Domestic Unit; Special to The New York Times Hunt Tells of Early ...
  • Mills Reveals Alcoholism; Plans to Stay in Congress; Special to The New York Times
  • $170,000 in Illegal Gifts Admitted by Ashland Oil; Special to The New York Times
  • BEAME TO PROPOSE NEW FISCAL PANEL; City-State Body Would Deal 'Day-to-Day' With Broad Problems and Solutions ...
  • NEWS INDEX
  • Front Page 1 -- No Title
  • KREMLIN CANCELS BREZHNEV'S VISIT TO MIDDLE EAST; Special to The New York Times
  • Pakistan Estimates Quake Killed 4,700 in 9 Towns; Ground Contact With Disaster Area, in Mountains of ...
  • Connecticut to Build Solar-Heating Plant In Housing for Aged; Special to The New York Times SOLAR HEAT ...
  • Borough Will Hold 7th Vote on School; Special to The New York Time
  • New Jersey Briefs; Trenton Prison Inmate Found Hanged Man Held in Bus Hijacking Leads Offered in Girls' ...
  • 212 More Remember The Needy
  • Job-Hunting Jars Modern-Language Convention
  • HOW TO AID THE FUND
  • Detroit in Recession Reflects Fear and Strength; Special to The New York Times Detroit Amid Recession ...
  • Death of 3 in Atlantic City Is Ruled Murder-Suicide; Special to The New York Times Man Despondent Over ...
  • Patrolman Who Killed Boy, 16, Out of Job, Pending Jury Study; Special to The New York Times
  • Delinquency Rate Rises On Home Loans in.State; Jersey Consumer Notes
  • News Summary and Index; The Major Events of the Day
  • CITY SCHOOLS ASK FOR $2,78-BILLION, A RECORD BUDGET; More Help for Handicapped and Non-English-Speaking ...
  • Carey Tax Plan Challenged By Senate G.O.P. Leader
  • Blacks to Send Carey List of Appointee Candidates
  • State Aide Sought to Curb Nursing-Home Inspections; Aide to Lefkowitz Urged That Curb Be Imposed on ...
  • Unlawful Aliens Use Costly City Services; Thousands Compete for Jobs and Get School, Hospital and Welfare ...
  • JERSEY SESSION FINISHES IN LIMBO; Special to The New York Times Legislature Was Longest in History but ...
  • Truancy Seen Cutting Aid To Some School Districts
  • Watergate Jury's Day
  • NEWS INDEX
  • FORD SAID TO DROP SURTAX PROPOSAL; Special to The New York Times He is Reported to Be Under Pressure ...
  • Minnesota and Pittsburgh Win and Will Meet in Football's Super Bowl
  • Inflation Slows Growth Of West's Arms Budgets; Special to The New York Times Inflation Slows Growth ...
  • Christmas 'Scrooge'Ad Hoped to Bring Cheer
  • Enrollment at 4-Year Colleges Increases by 3.5% to 6,650,000
  • Shipping/Mails; Outgoing Passenger and Mail Ships All Hours Given in Eastern Standard Time Incoming.Passenger ...
  • Television
  • Radio
  • 3 MORE AIDES QUIT IN C.I.A SHAKE-UP; FACED TRANSFERS; Special to The New York Times Resign Week After ...
  • Nicaragua Will Free 26 To Win Hostage's Release; Special to The New York Times Nicaragua Agrees to Free ...
  • Quake Hits Pakistan
  • Marsteller Eyes Beirut Office; Advertising
  • East Germans Map Economic Austerity To Offset Inflation; Special to The New York Times AUSTERITY IS ...
  • TREASURY PLANS BIG BORROWINGS; Quest for financings Will Compete With Corporate Bond Market's Needs ...
  • Personal Finance: On Buying Gold
  • New Corporate Bonds
  • Moody's Extends A Rating For New York City Bonds
  • Prestigious Aston Martin To End Auto Production; Special to The New York Times Aston Martin to End Production ...
  • Supplementary Over-Counter Listings
  • Goldman, Sachs to Admit 4 More General Partners
  • Economists Agree Tax Cut Is Needed; Special to The New York Times Size Question Still Divides Experts ...
  • The Screen; Indian Life Recalled in 'Shadow Catcher'
  • A Packed Weekend for Ballet Theater
  • Events Today; Cabaret Dance Theater Music
  • Westinghouse to Sell Its Major Appliance Business; Westinghouse to Sell Major Appliance Business
  • Guide GOING OUT
  • 3 Rare Gemsbok Are Killed In First New Mexico Hunt; Special to The New York Times
  • Baroque Concerts Given In the Met Museum Court
  • Stage: 'All Over Town' Proves a Zany Surprise
  • Computer for Groceries Does About Everything But Bagging; Special to The New York Times Computer for ...
  • Plight of Public Transportation Systems Mounts; Patronage Rise Is Eroded by Cost Jump Plight of Public ...
  • Today's Entries at Aqueduct
  • Simon and India: Battle on Idol Widens
  • Tonight's Yonkers Entries
  • Messina Mat Victor In Post Tourney; Special to The New York Times
  • High Tides Around New York
  • COST TO OVERHAUL A-SUB QUADRUPLES; Special to The New York Times
  • Sports News Briefs; Special to The New York Times Filion Wins 2, Lifts Mark to 631 Long Wins Hobart ...
  • FLORIDA TOURISM IS AIDED BY BOOM; boom over the week- LANDO, Fla., Dec. 29--?? ailing tourist industry, ...
  • Size and Strength of Martti Talvela, the Met's Boris, Shield a Complex Intellectual Personality
  • Connors, Newcombe Win at Net
  • Article 3 -- No Title
  • Alabama, LaSalle Victors in Tourney
  • Article 2 -- No Title
  • Celtics Rout Sonics
  • RUGBY RESULTS
  • Q's Beat Spirits
  • Hockey, Basketball Standings; Amer. Basketball Ass'n Nat'l Hockey League Nat'l Basketball Ass'n World ...
  • Nuggets Victors
  • Nearby Horse Shows
  • Kings 103-99 Victors
  • Steelers-Raiders Scoring
  • Article 1 -- No Title
  • Hawks Beat Blues
  • Saturday's College Results
  • Vikings-Rams Scoring
  • Many Levels of Sadness Felt by Rams' Players; Special to The New York Times
  • Rooney Accepts Super Gift With Smile and a Twinkle; Special to The New York Times Team Gives Super Gift ...
  • St. John's Former Coach Bows To Ex- Team Using His Strategy; Garden Line-Ups
  • Rozelle: We'll Win In Court; Special to The New York Times
  • Texas and Auburn Play Tonight in Gator Bowl
  • Austrian, 19, Wins Jump
  • Steelers Defeat Raiders, 24-13, and Reach Super Bowl With Vikings, Victors by 14-10; Special to The ...
  • Knicks Lose, Held to 6 in 3d Quarter; Special to The New York Times Knicks Trounced, 115-89, After 6-Point ...
  • Rams Beaten by Own Mistakes and Penalties; Special to The New York Times Vikings Take 14-10 Advantage of Rams
  • Sports Today
  • Rangers Top Scouts, 2-1; Islanders 7-0 Winners; Key Goal by Fairbairn Rangers Defeat Scouts, 2-1, on ...
  • Rangers Top Scouts, 2-1; Islanders 7-0 Winners; Special to The New York Times Resch Blanks Capitals ...
  • Miss Fisher Takes Slalom
  • Soviet Lifter Sets Mark
  • A Comedy Without Laughter; Red Smith Sports of The Times Exercises in Futility Payday for the President
  • 2 Die and Boy, 7, Is Lost in Jones Inlet Boat Accident
  • BRONX WOMAN DIES OF FOOD POISONING
  • Jersey Police Find Man Slew Himself After Killing 2 Sons; Special to The Sew York Times
  • Rand, Former Olympian, Wins Lake Placid Ski Jump; Special to The New York Times
  • School on L.I. Offers a Course About City; Uses Manhattan as the Classroom on Field Trips
  • THE LEADERS CLASS A
  • CITY RELIEF ROLLS ON UPSWING AGAIN; Increase in Grants Sought as 8,645 Are Added-Rise Is 4th in 5 Months
  • For 900 Elderly, an Early New Year
  • Metropolitan Briefs; From the Police Blotter: Building-Worker Pact Recommended Revenue-Sharing Yields ...
  • Widow Is Slain as Disabled Son Goes for Help
  • Deaths
  • HOW TO AID THE FUND
  • JOHN E. KENNEY, 74, INDUSTRIALIST, DIES
  • Thousands Watch Hollywood Farewell to Benny By JON NORDHEIMER; Special to The New York Times
  • Opium Poppy Growing in U. S. Is Urged as Guarantee of Drugs; Special to The New York Times
  • GIUSEPPE DOZZA, 73, MAYOR OF BOLOGNA
  • Francis R. B. Godolphin Dead; Former Dean at Priceton, 71
  • REFORM IN STUDY OF LAW IS URGED; Federal Judge SuggestsThat Students Serve the Public
  • Madrid Airport Reopens
  • J. W. Ferman, 69, Published Science Fiction Magazine
  • Office Pool, 1975; ESSAY
  • Thinking the Unthinkable; ABROAD AT HOME
  • News Summary and Index; The Major Events of the Day The Other News
  • Detroit in Recession Reflects Fear and Strength; Special to The New York Times Detroit Amid Recession ...
  • 212 More Remember The Needy; 212 More Remember The Needy
  • Who Started Pollution?
  • Wasted Life'
  • Job-Hunting Jars Modern-Language Convention
  • Letters to the Editor; Human Cost of Nuclear Power Risk of Oil Spills Clemency Program Eisenhower Legacy ...
  • As the World Turns
  • ...and Opportunity
  • Listing of New Books
  • The 'Real' Emily Dickinson; Books of The Times
  • Washington's Willard
  • Connecticut's 'Old-Fashioned' School- Tax System Faces Overhaul
  • KUH, IN FAREWELL, CITES PROGRESS; His Statement Offers Quotes From Camus and Sinatra
  • Morality Play
  • ANSWER TO PREVIOUS PUZZLE
  • CROSSWORD PUZZLE
  • Mideast: Danger...
  • Gail A. Harris Wed To Jerry L. Ellstein
  • Jeffrey S. Felder Weds Miss Siegel in Queens
  • Bridge:; Signaling Can Often Provide Vital Information to Declarer
  • Dentist Weds Mary L. Rider
  • Ellen Gogolick Wed To David Freeman
  • Psychiatric Tests Slated for Suspect In QueensSlaying
  • Maura Moroney Bride Of John Henry Tobin
  • Eva Jean Davis Becomes Bride Of J. H. Holman
  • Miss Davison Has Nuptials
  • Nuptials Here for Susan M. Nassau
  • Baby-Sitting at NewYear's Feels the Economic Pinch
  • BOSTON TO APPEAL ORDER ON BUSING; City Desires a School Ruling by High Court, Mayor Says
  • 2 Women Meet the Challenge of Running a Farm
  • Honorable Discharge Ratio is the Lowest in 25 Years
  • MOST-ADMIRED LIST HEADED BY KISSINGER
  • The Rapid, Quiet Termination of a Rape Case
  • Herblock Says Drawing Nixon Was Unpleasantt
  • Calendars '75 Will Delight Nature Lovers
  • Watergate Jury Gets Case Today After 13 Weeks, Testimony by 80 and Playing of Tapes; Special to The ...
  • About New York; The City in Days of Auld
  • Blacks to Send Carey List of Appointee Candidates
  • Aide to Mrs. Ford to Wed
  • South's State Campuses Still Largely Segregated; Special to The New York Times
  • ISRAEL PONDERS PLEA ON BERGMAN; Special to The New York Times Minister Rebuffs Koch on Nursing Home Owner
  • Immigration Fraud Case Dropped in '72
  • NEW YORKERS PAY HIGHEST STATE TAX; $8.5-Billion Total Reported for the Fiscal Year 1974
  • Federal Spending Level Called Tax Cut Threat; Special to The New York Times
  • 95% of 36,900 Recruits Called Average or Above
  • TIME NAMES FAISAL 'MAN OF THE YEAR'
  • Bronx Woman Found Slain With Her Throat Slashed
  • KISSINGER SUGGESTS COMPROMISE ON OIL
  • Barge in Mekong Delta Hits A Mine, Killing 22 Civilians
  • JAIL GUARDS HELD 6 HOURS BY I.R.A.; Special to The New York Times Irish Prison Siege Is Ended by Troops ...
  • RISE IN FRENCH CRIME IS REPORTED TO SLOW; Special to The New York Times
  • MOSCOW DISSIDENT TAKEN TO LITHUANIA; Special to The New York Times
  • Rebels Attack in Cambodia
  • Barbados Enlarging Blacks' Role in Tourist Business; Special to The New York Times
  • Glasgow's Youth Gangs Tamed a Little
  • TREASON CHARGED TO PAPADOPOULOSS
  • 24 Space Flights Set for 1975, 14 Over '74 and Near 60's Level; Special to The New York Times
  • QUAKE DESTROYS PAKISTAN VILLAGE; Hundreds Feared Killed by Tremors Along Mountain Road to China Border
  • Laos Announces an Agreement With Rebels Who Seized Town
  • Families Leaving Devastated Darwin Smuggle Out Their Pets; Special to The New York Times
  • Thais Again Expel Ex-Premier Who Returned From Exile in Secrecy; Special to The New York Times
  • BREZHNEV MEETS CAIRO MINISTERS; Special to The New York Times Press Omits Mention of Plan for a Visit to Egypt
  • BANGLADESH ACTS TO CURB VIOLENCE; Soldiers Patrol Streets as Mujib Uses New Power
  • ETHIOPIA PLANS TO MEET REBELS; Proposal for Direct Talks Is Made at Parley in Eritrea
  • Japanese Soldier Found After Hiding 30 Years
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This article is about the use and knowledge of techniques and processes for producing goods and services. For other uses, see Technology (disambiguation).

Technology ("science of craft", from Greekτέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia[2]) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings.

The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.

Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions of the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.

Definition and usage

The use of the term "technology" has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts[3] or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861).[4]

The term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which usually translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves.[5]

In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them."[6] Bain's definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use.[7] More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self (techniques de soi).

Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, method, etc., that is created by technology."[8]Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here."[9] The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.[10]Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."[11]

Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology.[12]W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."[13]

The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture.[14] Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and as a result has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has at its basis the development of the Internet and the computer.[15] Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.

Science, engineering and technology

The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.[16] Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability, and safety.[citation needed]

Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.

Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.[17]

The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. In the immediate wake of World War II, for example, it was widely considered in the United States that technology was simply "applied science" and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research."[18] In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The issue remains contentious, though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research.[19][20]

History

Main articles: History of technology, Timeline of historic inventions, and Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering

Paleolithic (2.5 Ma – 10 ka)

Further information: Outline of prehistoric technology

The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraginghominids which were already bipedal,[21] with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans.[22] Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully modern language.[23]

Stone tools

Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75,000 years ago,[24]pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work.

Fire

Main article: Control of fire by early humans

The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind.[25] The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500 and 400 ka.[27][28] Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten.[29]

Clothing and shelter

Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity's progress. As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380 ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.[30][31] Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200 ka and into other continents such as Eurasia.[32]

Neolithic through classical antiquity (10 ka – 300 CE)

Human's technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic Period ("New Stone Age"). The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance that allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. This use of polished stone axes increased greatly in the Neolithic, but were originally used in the preceding Mesolithic in some areas such as Ireland.[33]Agriculture fed larger populations, and the transition to sedentism allowed simultaneously raising more children, as infants no longer needed to be carried, as nomadic ones must. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer economy.[34][35]

With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization.[36] What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures and specialized labor, of trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges such as irrigation, are all thought to have played a role.[37]

Metal tools

Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided, for the first time, the ability to smelt and forge of gold, copper, silver, and lead  – native metals found in relatively pure form in nature.[38] The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 10 ka).[39] Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1800 BCE.[40][41]

Energy and transport

Main article: History of transport

Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailing ship; the earliest record of a ship under sail is that of a Nile boat dating to the 8th millennium BCE.[42] From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used the power of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely built irrigation channels and "catch" basins. The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia used a complex system of canals and levees to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for irrigation.[43]

According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 BCE probably independently and nearly simultaneously in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe.[44] Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 BCE with most experts putting it closer to 4000 BCE.[45] The oldest artifacts with drawings depicting wheeled carts date from about 3500 BCE;[46] however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia.[47]

The invention of the wheel revolutionized trade and war. It did not take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads. The ancient Sumerians used the potter's wheel and may have invented it.[48] A stone pottery wheel found in the city-state of Ur dates to around 3429 BCE,[49] and even older fragments of wheel-thrown pottery have been found in the same area.[49] Fast (rotary) potters' wheels enabled early mass production of pottery, but it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources. The first two-wheeled carts were derived from travois[50] and were first used in Mesopotamia and Iran in around 3000 BCE.[50]

The oldest known constructed roadways are the stone-paved streets of the city-state of Ur, dating to circa 4000 BCE[51] and timber roads leading through the swamps of Glastonbury, England, dating to around the same time period.[51] The first long-distance road, which came into use around 3500 BCE,[51] spanned 1,500 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea,[51] but was not paved and was only partially maintained.[51] In around 2000 BCE, the Minoans on the Greek island of Crete built a fifty-kilometer (thirty-mile) road leading from the palace of Gortyn on the south side of the island, through the mountains, to the palace of Knossos on the north side of the island.[51] Unlike the earlier road, the Minoan road was completely paved.[51]

Plumbing

Ancient Minoan private homes had running water.[53] A bathtub virtually identical to modern ones was unearthed at the Palace of Knossos.[53][54] Several Minoan private homes also had toilets, which could be flushed by pouring water down the drain.[53] The ancient Romans had many public flush toilets,[54] which emptied into an extensive sewage system.[54] The primary sewer in Rome was the Cloaca Maxima;[54] construction began on it in the sixth century BCE and it is still in use today.[54]

The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts,[52] which were used to transport water across long distances.[52] The first Roman aqueduct was built in 312 BCE.[52] The eleventh and final ancient Roman aqueduct was built in 226 CE.[52] Put together, the Roman aqueducts extended over 450 kilometers,[52] but less than seventy kilometers of this was above ground and supported by arches.[52]

Medieval and modern history (300 CE – present)

Main articles: Medieval technology, Renaissance technology, Industrial Revolution, Second Industrial Revolution, Information Technology, and Productivity improving technologies (economic history)

Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with innovations such as silk, the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology saw the use of simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley) being combined to form more complicated tools, such as the wheelbarrow, windmills and clocks. The Renaissance brought forth many of these innovations, including the printing press (which facilitated the greater communication of knowledge), and technology became increasingly associated with science, beginning a cycle of mutual advancement. The advancements in technology in this era allowed a more steady supply of food, followed by the wider availability of consumer goods.

Starting in the United Kingdom in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was a period of great technological discovery, particularly in the areas of agriculture, manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, and transport, driven by the discovery of steam power. Technology took another step in a second industrial revolution with the harnessing of electricity to create such innovations as the electric motor, light bulb, and countless others. Scientific advancement and the discovery of new concepts later allowed for powered flight and advancements in medicine, chemistry, physics, and engineering. The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants rely on motors to transport them and their food supply. Communication was also greatly improved with the invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio and television. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of the airplane and automobile.

The 20th century brought a host of innovations. In physics, the discovery of nuclear fission has led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Computers were also invented and later miniaturized utilizing transistors and integrated circuits. Information technology subsequently led to the creation of the Internet, which ushered in the current Information Age. Humans have also been able to explore space with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the way to the moon. In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and treatments.

Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to make and maintain these new technologies, and entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. Modern technology increasingly relies on training and education – their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require sophisticated general and specific training. Moreover, these technologies have become so complex that entire fields have been created to support them, including engineering, medicine, and computer science, and other fields have been made more complex, such as construction, transportation and architecture.

Philosophy

Technicism

Generally, technicism is the belief in the utility of technology for improving human societies.[55] Taken to an extreme, technicism "reflects a fundamental attitude which seeks to control reality, to resolve all problems with the use of scientific–technological methods and tools."[56] In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Stephen V. Monsma,[57] connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority.

Optimism

See also: Extropianism

Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good.

Transhumanists generally believe that the point of technology is to overcome barriers, and that what we commonly refer to as the human condition is just another barrier to be surpassed.

Singularitarians believe in some sort of "accelerating change"; that the rate of technological progress accelerates as we obtain more technology, and that this will culminate in a "Singularity" after artificial general intelligence is invented in which progress is nearly infinite; hence the term. Estimates for the date of this Singularity vary,[58] but prominent futurist Ray Kurzweil estimates the Singularity will occur in 2045.

Kurzweil is also known for his history of the universe in six epochs: (1) the physical/chemical epoch, (2) the life epoch, (3) the human/brain epoch, (4) the technology epoch, (5) the artificial intelligence epoch, and (6) the universal colonization epoch. Going from one epoch to the next is a Singularity in its own right, and a period of speeding up precedes it. Each epoch takes a shorter time, which means the whole history of the universe is one giant Singularity event.[59]

Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist.[60]

Skepticism and critics

See also: Luddite, Neo-Luddism, Anarcho-primitivism, and Bioconservatism

On the somewhat skeptical side are certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed. They suggest that the inevitable result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health.

Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although not entirely, deterministic reservations about technology (see "The Question Concerning Technology"[61]). According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, "Heidegger does not oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that 'in no way confines us to a stultified compulsion to push on blindly with technology or, what comes to the same thing, to rebel helplessly against it.' Indeed, he promises that 'when we once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology, we find ourselves unexpectedly taken into a freeing claim.'[62] What this entails is a more complex relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to allow."[63]

Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics such as Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange, and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. In Goethe's Faust, Faust selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology. More recently, modern works of science fiction such as those by Philip K. Dick and William Gibson and films such as Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology's impact on human society and identity.

The late cultural critic Neil Postman distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and from what he called "technopolies," societies that are dominated by the ideology of technological and scientific progress to the exclusion or harm of other cultural practices, values and world-views.[64]

Darin Barney has written about technology's impact on practices of citizenship and democratic culture, suggesting that technology can be construed as (1) an object of political debate, (2) a means or medium of discussion, and (3) a setting for democratic deliberation and citizenship. As a setting for democratic culture, Barney suggests that technology tends to make ethical questions, including the question of what a good life consists in, nearly impossible, because they already give an answer to the question: a good life is one that includes the use of more and more technology.[65]

Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, and robotics. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to human beings, including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers, scientists and public intellectuals who have written about similar issues (e.g. Francis Fukuyama, Jürgen Habermas, William Joy, and Michael Sandel).[66]

Another prominent critic of technology is Hubert Dreyfus, who has published books such as On the Internet and What Computers Still Can't Do.

A more infamous anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future, written by the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure.

Appropriate technology

See also: Technocriticism and Technorealism

The notion of appropriate technology was developed in the 20th century by thinkers such as E. F. Schumacher and Jacques Ellul to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The ecovillage movement emerged in part due to this concern.

Optimism and skepticism in the 21st century

This section mainly focuses on American concerns even if it can reasonably be generalized to other Western countries.

The inadequate quantity and quality of American jobs is one of the most fundamental economic challenges we face. [...] What's the linkage between technology and this fundamental problem?

— Bernstein, Jared, "It’s Not a Skills Gap That’s Holding Wages Down: It’s the Weak Economy, Among Other Things," in The American Prospect, October 2014

In his article, Jared Bernstein, a Senior Fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities,[67] questions the widespread idea that automation, and more broadly, technological advances, have mainly contributed to this growing labor market problem. His thesis appears to be a third way between optimism and skepticism. Essentially, he stands for a neutral approach of the linkage between technology and American issues concerning unemployment and declining wages.

He uses two main arguments to defend his point. First, because of recent technological advances, an increasing number of workers are losing their jobs. Yet, scientific evidence fails to clearly demonstrate that technology has displaced so many workers that it has created more problems than it has solved. Indeed, automation threatens repetitive jobs but higher-end jobs are still necessary because they complement technology and manual jobs that "requires flexibility judgment and common sense"[68] remain hard to replace with machines. Second, studies have not shown clear links between recent technology advances and the wage trends of the last decades.

Therefore, according to Bernstein, instead of focusing on technology and its hypothetical influences on current American increasing unemployment and declining wages, one needs to worry more about "bad policy that fails to offset the imbalances in demand, trade, income and opportunity."[68]

For people who use both the Internet and mobile devices in excessive quantities it is likely for them to experience fatigue and over exhaustion as a result of disruptions in their sleeping patterns. Continuous studies have shown that increased BMI and weight gain are associated with people who spend long hours online and not exercising frequently [69]. Heavy Internet use is also displayed in the school lower grades of those who use it in excessive amounts [70]. It has also been noted that the use of mobile phones whilst driving has increased the occurrence of road accidents — particularly amongst teen drivers. Statistically, teens reportedly have fourfold the amount of road traffic incidents as those who are 20 years or older, and a very high percentage of adolescents write (81%) and read (92%) texts while driving.[71] In this context, mass media and technology have a negative impact on people, on both their mental and physical health.

Complex technological systems

Thomas P. Hughes stated that because technology has been considered as a key way to solve problems, we need to be aware of its complex and varied characters to use it more efficiently.[72] What is the difference between a wheel or a compass and cooking machines such as an oven or a gas stove? Can we consider all of them, only a part of them, or none of them as technologies?

Technology is often considered too narrowly; according to Hughes, "Technology is a creative process involving human ingenuity".[73] This definition's emphasis on creativity avoids unbounded definitions that may mistakenly include cooking “technologies," but it also highlights the prominent role of humans and therefore their responsibilities for the use of complex technological systems.

Yet, because technology is everywhere and has dramatically changed landscapes and societies, Hughes argues that engineers, scientists, and managers have often believed that they can use technology to shape the world as they want. They have often supposed that technology is easily controllable and this assumption has to be thoroughly questioned.[72] For instance, Evgeny Morozov particularly challenges two concepts: “Internet-centrism” and “solutionism."[74] Internet-centrism refers to the idea that our society is convinced that the Internet is one of the most stable and coherent forces. Solutionism is the ideology that every social issue can be solved thanks to technology and especially thanks to the internet. In fact, technology intrinsically contains uncertainties and limitations. According to Alexis Madrigal's review of Morozov's theory, to ignore it will lead to “unexpected consequences that could eventually cause more damage than the problems they seek to address."[75] Benjamin R. Cohen and Gwen Ottinger also discussed the multivalent effects of technology.[76]

Therefore, recognition of the limitations of technology, and more broadly, scientific knowledge, is needed – especially in cases dealing with environmental justice and health issues. Ottinger continues this reasoning and argues that the ongoing recognition of the limitations of scientific knowledge goes hand in hand with scientists and engineers’ new comprehension of their role. Such an approach of technology and science "[require] technical professionals to conceive of their roles in the process differently. [They have to consider themselves as] collaborators in research and problem solving rather than simply providers of information and technical solutions."[77]

Competitiveness

Technology is properly defined as any application of science to accomplish a function. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be significantly more mundane, but it is all technology, and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage.

Technology-based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e.g., Dow, DuPont, GM) and it is what was used to transform the US into a superpower. It was not economic-based planning.

Other animal species

See also: Tool use by animals, Structures built by animals, and Ecosystem engineer

The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as chimpanzees,[78] some dolphin communities,[79] and crows.[80][81] Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams, or bees and their honeycombs.

The ability to make and use tools was once considered a defining characteristic of the genus Homo.[82] However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans. For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges, termite fishing probes, pestles and levers.[83]West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts,[84] as do capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista, Brazil.[85]

Future technology

Main article: Emerging technologies

Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time. As with all predictions of the future, however, technology's is uncertain.

In 2005, futurist Ray Kurzweil predicted that the future of technology would mainly consist of an overlapping "GNR Revolution" of genetics, nanotechnology and robotics, with robotics being the most important of the three.[86]

See also

Main article: Outline of technology

Theories and concepts in technology
Economics of technology
Technology journalism
Other

References

A steam turbine with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity used today. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated.[1] Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century.
Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment with combustion generated by amplified sun light
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools
The wheel was invented circa 4000 BCE.
The automobile revolutionized personal transportation.
This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth, an example of technology usage by non-human primates.
  1. ^National Research Council; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Energy Engineering Board; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth (1986). Electricity in Economic Growth. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. pp. 16, 40. ISBN 0309036771. 
  2. ^Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199102074. 
  3. ^Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary, or Familiar Explanation of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 524 – via Internet Archive. 
  4. ^Mannix, Loretta H.; Stratton, Julius Adams (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 190–92. ISBN 0262195240. 
  5. ^"Technik Comes to America: Changing Meanings of Technology Before 1930". Technology and Culture. 47. 
  6. ^Bain, Read (1937). "Technology and State Government". American Sociological Review. 2 (6): 860. doi:10.2307/2084365. JSTOR 2084365. 
  7. ^MacKenzie, Donald A.; Wajcman, Judy (1999). "Introductory Essay". The Social Shaping of Technology (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0335199135. 
  8. ^
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