both authors use the literarytechnique of pathetic fallacy – a branch of personification – which gives to the weather and physical world, human attributes. In both texts, this technique enriches the narratives bothaesthetically and in terms of meaning – by telling the inner emotions of the characters.However, while in
the pathetic fallacy is employed throughout the text, in
it takes centre stage only at the most crucial point in the book – with Meursault, the protagonist killing the Arab. This paper will examine the purpose of both authors in using the pathetic fallacy, and the significance each place on this technique.Yoshimoto places great emphasis on the pathetic fallacy, using it frequently. Thisfrequency is due largely to the cultural context of the story.
is based in Japan, where aculture of covert and coded language abounds in daily life and conversation; in a country wherethere are two social modes – ‘honne’, one’s true but generally hidden feelings, and ‘tatemae’,the feelings which one shows when in public and which literally means ‘facade’
.Thus, the pathetic fallacy is Yoshimoto’s way of augmenting the ‘honne’ moments of her protagonist,Mikage. In the weather and the elements we see reflected, Mikage’s deep and true emotions;emotions which a culture of facetious conversations has made difficult to convey, even inmoments of self conversation – the ‘honne’In Camus’
the justification for the use of the pathetic fallacy lies, not inculture, as is in Yoshimoto’s
, but in characterization, Meursault being set up as theabsurd man. Meursault’s killing of the Arab is at a crossroads in definition: Is it a murder, andthus an ‘act,’ or is it merely an ‘event.’ The pathetic fallacy of the scene dissuades an ‘act’definition by incriminating “the sweat and sun” (Camus 59). Thus, Meursault is absolved of murder, and the killing of the Arab becomes just an “event.” If Meursault’s killing of the Arabis not premeditated, motivated, wilful, nor intended, then Meursault kills in a state of absurd
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Before you write written tasks, you should look at the assessment criteria. This way you know what the examiner is looking for. The best way to become familiar with the criteria is to use them regularly. For each written task that is entered into the portfolio, there should be some form of self assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment.
Remember: Teachers are not allowed to edit or annotate students' written tasks. This does not mean that teachers cannot give feedback. Rather, teachers can and should tell students how they think they will score according to the assessment criteria. What's more, teachers should be involved in guiding students towards appropriate ideas for the written task.
Written task 1
Here is a summary of what you will want to look for in each criterion at both SL and HL. A handy print out for assessing student work is also provided. For the actual descriptors, we refer you to the IB Language A: Language and Literature guide.
Criterion A - Rationale - 2 marks
It is essential that students include a rationale before the actual task. The rationale must be no fewer than 200 words and no longer than 300 words. The rationale should shed light on the thought process behind the task. Furthermore, it should explain how the task aims to meet one or more learning outcomes of the syllabus.
Remember: If the word count of the rationale exceeds 300 words, 1 mark will be deducted.
Criterion B - Task and content - 8 marks
The content of a task should lend itself well to the type of text that one chooses. The task should demonstrate an understanding of the course work and topics studied. Finally, there should be evidence that the student has understood the conventions of writing a particular text type.
Criterion C - Organization - 5 marks
Each type of text has a different structure. Nevertheless, all types of texts have conventions and organizing principles. Students must organize their tasks effectively and appropriately. There must be a sense of coherence.
Criterion D - Language and style - 5 marks
The language of the task must be appropriate to the nature of the task. This means that students use an appropriate and effective register and style. Whatever the nature of the task, ideas must be communicated effectively.
Written task 2 (HL only)
The following criteria apply to the criticial response that HL students write on one of the six prescribed questions.
Criterion A - Outline - 2 marks
For the critical response, students are asked to write a brief outline of the task that includes the following:
- The prescribed question to which the task refers
- The title of the text, or texts, that the student analyzes
- The part of the course to which the task corresponds (Parts 1-4)
- Four or more bullet-points that explain the content of the task
Criterion B - Response to question - 8 marks
To achieve top marks for this criterion, students must explore all of the implications of the prescribed question chosen. The critical response must be focused on and relevant to the prescribed question. Furthermore, the response is supported by well chosen examples from the text(s).
Criterion C - Organization and argument - 5 marks
The response must be well organized and effectively structured in order to score top marks for this criterion. The response should make a case and develop it thoroughly.
Remember: The critical response must be 800 -1,000 words. If this is not the case 2 marks will be deducted for Criterion C.
Criterion D - Language and style - 5 marks
The response must be written effectively and accurately. Students should use an academic register and strong style.